Sociologist Peter Baehr writes "following Romieu's polemic "Caesarism" In religious writer Orestes Brownson used it to mean monarchical absolutism. In the Westminster Review wrote "clumsy eulogies of Caesarism as incarnate in the dynasty of Bonaparte ". Benjamin Disraeli was accused of Caesarism in March when, in anticipation of war with Russia , he mobilised British reserves and called Indian troops to Malta. Chesterton made one of the most ringing denunciations of Caesarism in his work Heretics , calling it "the worst form of slavery".
Sociologist Max Weber believed. Professor of law Gerhard Casper writes "Weber employed the term to stress, inter alia, the plebiscitary character of elections, disdain for parliament, the non-toleration of autonomous powers within the government and a failure to attract or suffer independent political minds. The most famous person who themselves espoused Caesarism was Napoleon Bonaparte , who admired and emulated Caesar during his rule in France. Marxism Marxism is a theory and method of working class self-emancipation. As a theory, it relies on a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation, it originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Friedrich Engels.
Marxism uses a methodology, now known as historical materialism , to analyze and critique the development of class society and of capitalism as well as the role of class struggles in systemic economic and political change. According to Marxist theory, in capitalist societies, class conflict arises due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed and exploited proletariat—a class of wage labourers employed to produce goods and services—and the bourgeoisie—the ruling class that owns the means of production and extracts its wealth through appropriation of the surplus product produced by the proletariat in the form of profit.
This class struggle, expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of production , results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness. In periods of deep crisis, the resistance of the oppressed can culminate in a proletarian revolution which, if victorious, leads to the establishment of socialism—a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution and production organized directly for use; as the productive forces continued to advance, Marx hypothesized that socialism would be transformed into a communist society: a classless, humane society based on common ownership and the underlying principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs".
Marxism has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, with the result that there is now no single definitive Marxist theory. Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while rejecting or modifying other aspects. Many schools of thought have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts, which has led to contradicting conclusions; however there is movement toward the recognition that historical materialism and dialectical materialism remains the fundamental aspect of all Marxist schools of thought.
Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia and has influenced many fields such as archaeology, media studies, political science, history, art history and theory, cultural studies, economics, criminology , literary criticism, film theory, critical psychology and philosophy; the term "Marxism" was popularized by Karl Kautsky , who considered himself an "orthodox" Marxist during the dispute between the orthodox and revisionist followers of Marx. Kautsky's revisionist rival Eduard Bernstein later adopted use of the term.
Engels did not support the use of the term "Marxism" to describe either his views. Engels claimed that the term was being abusively used as a rhetorical qualifier by those attempting to cast themselves as "real" followers of Marx while casting others in different terms, such as "Lassallians". In , Engels claimed that Marx had criticized self-proclaimed "Marxist" Paul Lafargue , by saying that if Lafargue's views were considered "Marxist" "one thing is certain and, that I am not a Marxist".
Marxism analyzes the material conditions and the economic activities required to fulfill human material needs to explain social phenomena within any given society, it assumes that the form of economic organization, or mode of production, influences all other social phenomena—including wider social relations, political institutions, legal systems, cultural systems and ideologies. The economic system and these social relations form a superstructure ; as forces of production, i.
As Karl Marx observed: "At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or—this expresses the same thing in legal terms—with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto. From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Begins an era of social revolution"; these inefficiencies manifest themselves as social contradictions in society which are, in turn, fought out at the level of the class struggle.
Under the capitalist mode of production , this struggle materializes between the minority who own the means of production and the vast majority of the population who produce goods and services. Starting with the conjectural premise that social change occurs because of the struggle between different classes within society who are under contradiction against each other, a Marxist would conclude that capitalism exploits and oppresses the proletariat , therefore capitalism will lead to a proletarian revolution.
Marxian economics and its proponents view capitalism as economically unsustainable and incapable of improving the living standards of the population due to its need to compensate for falling rates of profit by cutting employee's wages, social benefits and pursuing military aggression. The socialist system would succeed capitalism as humanity's mode of production through workers' revolution. According to Marxian crisis theory, socialism is not an economic necessity.
In a sociali. French Consulate The Consulate was the top level Government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire on 10 November until the start of the Napoleonic Empire on 18 May By extension, the term The Consulate refers to this period of French history. During this period, Napoleon Bonaparte , as First Consul , established himself as the head of a more authoritarian and centralized republican government in France while not declaring himself sole ruler. Due to the long-lasting institutions established during these years, Robert B.
Holtman has called the Consulate "one of the most important periods of all French history. French military disasters in and had shaken the Directory, shattered it in November In order to soothe the populace and protect the frontier, more than the French Revolution's usual terrorist measures was necessary.
Ultimate executive authority was vested in three consuls. Popular suffrage was retained, though mutilated by the lists of notables. The four aforementioned governmental organs were retained under the Constitution of the Year XII , which recognized Napoleon as the French sovereign Emperor, but their respective powers were diminished.
Conservatism Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition, hierarchy and property rights. Conservatives seek to preserve a range of institutions such as religion, parliamentary government, property rights, with the aim of emphasizing social stability and continuity; the more extreme elements—reactionaries—oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were".
Associated with right-wing politics, the term has since been used to describe a wide range of views. There is no single set of policies regarded as conservative because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered traditional in a given place and time, thus conservatives from different parts of the world—each upholding their respective traditions—may disagree on a wide range of issues.
Edmund Burke , an 18th-century politician who opposed the French Revolution but supported the American Revolution , is credited as one of the main theorists of conservatism in Great Britain in the s. According to Quintin Hogg , the chairman of the British Conservative Party in "Conservatism is not so much a philosophy as an attitude, a constant force, performing a timeless function in the development of a free society, corresponding to a deep and permanent requirement of human nature itself". In contrast to the tradition-based definition of conservatism, some political theorists such as Corey Robin define conservatism in terms of a general defense of social and economic inequality.
From this perspective, conservatism is less an attempt to uphold traditional institutions and more, "a meditation on—and theoretical rendition of—the felt experience of having power, seeing it threatened, trying to win it back". Liberal conservatism incorporates the classical liberal view of minimal government intervention in the economy.
Individuals should be free to participate in the market and generate wealth without government interference. However, individuals cannot be depended on to act responsibly in other spheres of life, therefore liberal conservatives believe that a strong state is necessary to ensure law and order and social institutions are needed to nurture a sense of duty and responsibility to the nation.
Liberal conservatism is a variant of conservatism, influenced by liberal stances; as these latter two terms have had different meanings over time and across countries, liberal conservatism has a wide variety of meanings. The term referred to the combination of economic liberalism , which champions laissez-faire markets, with the classical conservatism concern for established tradition, respect for authority and religious values, it contrasted itself with classical liberalism , which supported freedom for the individual in both the economic and social spheres.
Over time, the general conservative ideology in many countries adopted economic liberal arguments and the term liberal conservatism was replaced with conservatism. This is the case in countries where liberal economic ideas have been the tradition such as the United States and are thus considered conservative. In other countries where liberal conservative movements have entered the political mainstream, such as Italy and Spain , the terms liberal and conservative may be synonymous; the liberal conservative tradition in the United States combines the economic individualism of the classical liberals with a Burkean form of conservatism.
A secondary meaning for the term liberal conservatism that has developed in Europe is a combination of more modern conservative views with those of social liberalism ; this has developed as an opposition to the more collectivist views of socialism. This involves stressing what are now conservative views of free market economics and belief in individual responsibility, with social liberal views on defence of civil rights and support for a limited welfare state.
In continental Europe, this is sometimes translated into English as social conservatism. Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism that combines liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or more the right-wing of the liberal movement. The roots of conservative liberalism are found at the beginning of the history of liberalism; until the two World Wars , in most European countries the political class was formed by conservative liberals, from Germany to Italy.
Events after World War I brought the more radical version of classical liberalism to a more conservative type of liberalism. Libertarian conservatism describes certain political ideologies within the United States and Canada which combine libertarian economic issues with aspects of conservatism, its four main branches are constitutionalism , paleolibertarianism , small government conservatism and Christian libertarianism.
They differ from paleoconservatives , in that they are in favor of more personal and economic freedom. In contrast to paleoconservatives, libertarian conservatives support strict laissez-faire policies such as free trade, opposition to any national bank and opposition to business regulations. They are vehemently opposed to environmental regulations, corporate welfare and other areas of economic intervention.
Many conservatives in the United States , be. It was founded in by the son of Genoese nobleman Carlo Buonaparte. In addition to holding the title of Emperor of the French , the Bonaparte dynasty held various other titles and territories during the Napoleonic Wars, including the Kingdom of Italy , the Kingdom of Spain , the Kingdom of Westphalia , the Kingdom of Holland , the Kingdom of Naples. The dynasty held power for around a decade. Making powerful enemies, such as Austria , Britain and Prussia , as well as royalist restorational movements in France , the Two Sicilies, Sardinia , the dynasty collapsed due to the final defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo and the restoration of former dynasties by the Congress of Vienna.
However, during the Franco-Prussian War of —, the dynasty was again ousted from the Imperial Throne. Since that time, there has been a series of pretenders. Supporters of the Bonaparte family's claim to the throne of France are known as Bonapartists. The Bonaparte family were patricians in the Italian towns of San Miniato and Florence ; the name derives from Italian: parte. Gianfaldo Buonaparte was the first known Buonaparte at Sarzana around , his descendant Giovanni Buonaparte in married Isabella Calandrini, a cousin of cardinal Filippo Calandrini. Giovanni became mayor of Sarzana and was named commissioner of the Lunigiana by Giovanni Maria Visconti in , their great-grandson Francesco Buonaparte was an equestrian mercenary at the service of the Genoese Bank of Saint George.
In , he went to the island of Corsica , controlled by the bank.
Most of their descendants during subsequent generations were members of the Ajaccio town council. Napoleon's father, Carlo Buonaparte, received a patent of nobility from the King of France in There existed a Buonaparte family in Florence, however its eventual relation with the Sarzana and San Miniato families is unknown. Jacopo was a witness to and wrote an account of the sack of Rome , one of the most important historical documents recounting that event.
Two of Jacopo's nephews, Pier Antonio Buonaparte and Giovanni Buonaparte, took part in the Medici rebellion, after which they were banished from Florence and were restored by Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence. Jacopo's brother Benedetto Buonaparte maintained political neutrality; the San Miniato branch extinguished with Jacopo in The last member of the Florence family was a canon named Gregorio Bonaparte, who died in , leaving Napoleon as heir.
Napoleon I is the most prominent name associated with the Bonaparte family, because he conquered much of Europe during the early part of the 19th century. Due to his indisputable popularity in France both among the people and in the army, he took part in the Coup of 18 Brumaire , overthrew the Directory with the help of his brother, Lucien Bonaparte , president of the Council of Five Hundred , participated in the creation of a new Constitution, which allowed him to become the First Consul of France on 10 November Bonapartiste Bonapartism is the political ideology of Napoleon Bonaparte and his followers and successors.
Real or perceived threats of European hegemony by Hitler, Mussolini and Stalin evoke in the popular mind the wars against Napoleon. Excluded were his descendants by his first marriage, to the American commoner Elizabeth Patterson , of which Napoleon I had greatly disapproved. However nearly all earlier investigations, with the exception of the regrettably as yet unpublished thesis of David Shafer 2 , embraced reform as well as revolutionary movements across all social groups, including the works of Georges Weill, Maurice Agulhon, Claude Nicolet, R. Laura B. Noted political scientists and historians greatly differ on the definition and interpretation of Bonapartism.
It was used to refer to people who hoped to restore the House of Bonaparte and its style of government. In this sense, a Bonapartiste was a person who either participated in or advocated conservative and imperial political faction in 19th century France. After Napoleon, the term was applied to the French politicians who seized power in the coup of 18 Brumaire , ruling in the French Consulate and subsequently in the First and Second French Empires ; the Bonapartistes desired an empire under the House of Bonaparte, the Corsican family of Napoleon Bonaparte and his nephew Louis.
The term was used more for a political movement that advocated a dictatorship or authoritarian centralized state, with a strongman charismatic leader based on anti-elitist rhetoric , army support, conservatism. He used "Bonapartism" to refer to a situation in which counter-revolutionary military officers seize power from revolutionaries, use selective reforms to co-opt the radicalism of the popular classes. More "Bonapartism" may be used to describe the replacement of civilian leadership by military leadership within revolutionary movements or governments. Many modern-day Trotskyists and other leftists use the phrase "left Bonapartist" to describe those, such as Stalin and Mao, who controlled 20th-century bureaucratic socialist regimes.
In addition, Leon Trotsky was accused of using his position as commander of the Red Army to gain top-level power after Lenin's death. Noted political scientists and historians differ on the definition and interpretation of Bonapartism. Sudhir Hazareesingh's book The Legend of Napoleon explores numerous interpretations of the term. He says that it refers to a "popular national leader confirmed by popular election, above party politics, promoting equality and social change, with a belief in religion as an adjunct to the State, a belief that the central authority can transform society and a belief in the'nation' and its glory and a fundamental belief in national unity.
He says that to argue Bonapartism co-opted the masses is an example of the Marxist perspective of false consciousness : the idea that the masses can be manipulated by a few determined leaders in the pursuit of ends. Desires for public order, French national glory, emulation of the Roman Empire had combined to create a Caesarist coup d'etat for General Bonaparte on 18 Brumaire. The honey bee was a prominent political emblem for both the Second Empires, it represents the Bonapartist ideal of devoted service, social loyalty. The defining characteristics of political Bonapartism were adaptability.
There is only one Bonapartist, Persigny — and he is mad! Bonapartism developed. The Bonapartists helped; some of his acolytes could not accept his defeat in at Waterloo or the Congress of Vienna , continued to promote the Bonaparte ideology. The final part, 'Defeat', deals with the revolution. This is arguably the weakest section. Despite its overarching theme, revolutionary republicanism, the book robustly asserts while acknowledging the background of a serious economic crisis that the February revolution blew up out of confusion and errors rather than insurrectionary ambition or economic and social conflict.
Does this perhaps suggest that revolutionary republicanism was a mere spectre? Where does such microscopic history lead? The narrative is apparently consciously naively innocent. The participants are left to speak for themselves. However, every student of history quickly learns that there is no such thing as objective or neutral evidence. So what is the purpose of modern narrative? Is the aim to clarify the detail, for others to analyse and interpret? Or is the intention to imitate the approach of so much of the news media today, denying explanation, and merely creating life stories? Perhaps - although this is not said - the intention is to stress the importance of place, the impact of particular features of the urban environment on individuals.
Maybe the message is that all life is pure chance. Or perhaps the lack of analysis is imposed by the original material. The inquisitorial system often deliberately stripped out meaning: it suited a government prosecutor to find either simplistic explanations or no systematic reason why individuals joined insurrections. This book is a brilliant evocation of events, but there is little attempt to analyse their significance.
The reader's curiosity is inevitably aroused when presented with such a wealth of information about individuals and precise events. Why did barricades become a feature of urban insurrection uniquely in the nineteenth century?
fuwypobixo.tk: Bonapartism and Revolutionary Tradition in France: The Fédérés of (Federes of ) (): R. S. Alexander: Books. Bonapartism and Revolutionary Tradition in France. The Fédérés of . 11 - Fédérés and opposition to the Bourbon Monarchy during the Second.
How effective were they? Why were barricades erected in some districts on some occasions, and not in others, as was the case in February and June ? Equally a book subtitled The War of the Streets should not ignore the issue of why troops and national guardsmen changed sides, to that of insurrection, in July and February , but not in June , May and June In short, this recounting of narrative detail and multiple mini biographies is captivating, but ultimately frustrating. Perspective is lacking, the 'big story' is fractured and fudged. With so much detail to tell, stopping short at June is excusable, but not comprehensible.
The streets of small towns in southern France ran with blood after 2 December and Paris lost thousands in Bloody Week, May To understand the significance of barricades and urban guerilla warfare one needs to include the end of the story. Above all, with such rattlingly good tales, one wants to explore the question why.
Back to 2 G. Back to 3 R. Alexander, Bonapartism and the Revolutionary Tradition in France. Bonapartism is the political ideology of Napoleon Bonaparte and his followers and successors. It was later used to refer to people who hoped to restore the House of Bonaparte and its style of government. In this sense, a Bonapartiste was a person who either actively participated in or advocated conservative , monarchist and imperial political faction in 19th century France.
After Napoleon, the term was applied to the French politicians who seized power in the coup of 18 Brumaire , ruling in the French Consulate and subsequently in the First and Second French Empires. The term was used more generally for a political movement that advocated a dictatorship or authoritarian centralized state , with a strongman charismatic leader based on anti-elitist rhetoric, army support, and conservatism. Marxism and Leninism developed a vocabulary of political terms that included Bonapartism, derived from their analysis of the career of Napoleon Bonaparte.
He used "Bonapartism" to refer to a situation in which counter-revolutionary military officers seize power from revolutionaries, and use selective reforms to co-opt the radicalism of the popular classes. Marx argued that in the process, Bonapartists preserve and mask the power of a narrower ruling class.
More generally, "Bonapartism" may be used to describe the replacement of civilian leadership by military leadership within revolutionary movements or governments. Many modern-day Trotskyists and other leftists use the phrase "left Bonapartist" to describe those, such as Stalin and Mao , who controlled 20th-century bureaucratic socialist regimes. In addition, Leon Trotsky was accused of using his position as commander of the Red Army to gain top-level power after Lenin 's death. Noted political scientists and historians greatly differ on the definition and interpretation of Bonapartism.
Sudhir Hazareesingh's book The Legend of Napoleon explores numerous interpretations of the term. He says that it refers to a "popular national leader confirmed by popular election, above party politics, promoting equality, progress, and social change, with a belief in religion as an adjunct to the State, a belief that the central authority can transform society and a belief in the 'nation' and its glory and a fundamental belief in national unity. He says that to argue Bonapartism co-opted the masses is an example of the Marxist perspective of false consciousness : the idea that the masses can be manipulated by a few determined leaders in the pursuit of ends.
Philosophically, Bonapartism was Napoleon's adaptation of principles of the French Revolution to suit his imperial form of rule. Desires for public order, French national glory, and emulation of the Roman Empire had combined to create a Caesarist coup d'etat for General Bonaparte on 18 Brumaire.
Though he espoused adherence to revolutionary precedents, he "styled his direct and personal rule on the Old Regime monarchs. The honey bee was a prominent political emblem for both the First and Second Empires. The defining characteristics of political Bonapartism were flexibility and adaptability. Napoleon III once commented on the diversity of opinions in his cabinet, united under the banner of Bonapartism.
Bonapartism developed after Napoleon I was exiled to Elba. The Bonapartists helped him regain his power, leading to the Hundred Days period. Some of his acolytes could not accept his defeat in at Waterloo or the Congress of Vienna , and continued to promote the Bonaparte ideology. After Napoleon I's death in exile on Saint Helena in , many of these people transferred their allegiance to other members of his family. After the death of Napoleon's son, the Duke of Reichstadt known to Bonapartists as Napoleon II , Bonapartist hopes rested on several different members of the family.
The disturbances of gave hope to the nascent political undercurrent. Bonapartism, as an ideology of politically neutral French peasants and workers EJ Hobsbawm , was essential in the election of Napoleon I's nephew Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte as President of the Second Republic , and gave him the political support necessary for his discarding of the constitution and proclaiming the Second Empire.
The emperor surrendered to the Prussians and their German allies to avoid further bloodshed at the Battle of Sedan He went into exile after a parliamentary coup created the Third Republic. Bonapartists continued to agitate for another member of the family to be placed on the throne. The strength of these three factions combined was powerful, but they did not unite on the choice of the new French monarch. Monarchist fervor eventually waned, and the French Republic became more or less a permanent facet of French life. Bonapartism was slowly relegated to being the civic faith of a few romantics as more of a hobby than a practical political philosophy.
Thereafter Bonapartism ceased to be a significant political force. There are no remaining descendants in the male line from any other of Napoleon's brothers. There is no serious political movement that aims to restore any of these men to the imperial throne of France. After becoming Emperor in , Napoleon I established a Law of Succession, providing that the Bonapartist claim to the throne should pass firstly to Napoleon's own legitimate male descendants through the male line.
He eventually achieved an annulment, without Papal approval, of his marriage to Josephine. He married the younger Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma , with whom he had one son. The law of succession provided that if Napoleon's own direct line died out, the claim passed first to his older brother Joseph and his legitimate male descendants through the male line, then to his younger brother Louis and his legitimate male descendants through the male line.
His other brothers, Lucien and Jerome, and their descendants, were omitted from the succession even though Lucien was older than Louis because they had either politically opposed the Emperor or made marriages of which he disapproved. Napoleon abdicated in favor of his son after his defeat in Although the Bonapartes were deposed and the old Bourbon monarchy restored, Bonapartists recognized this child as Napoleon II. A sickly child, he was virtually imprisoned in Austria, and died young and unmarried, without any descendants.